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The Harvard System

In the Harvard System, cited publications are referred to in the text by giving the author’s surname and the year of publication and page number/(s) for direct quotation, are listed in full in an alphabetical reference list at the end of the text. Within the Harvard system you will notice a number of small variations, such as punctuation, and italicising or underlining the title of the publication. However, the overall format is the same. Whichever format you use, the most important thing is to ensure that you are consistent.

Examples in text

Academic representations of punk and punk rock date back more or less to the emergence of punk in Britain during the late 1970s. Hebdige (1979) interprets punk style as a visual response to the socio-economic crisis of Britain during the late 1970s. According to Hebdige, punk ‘appropriated the rhetoric of crisis which had filled the airwaves and editorials throughout the period and translated it into tangible (and visible) terms’ (1979: 87). A similar reading of punk is offered by Chambers who suggests that it signalled a period when ‘a particular music, a highly visible subcultural style, and an increasingly public crisis momentarily fused together’ (1985: 175).

Examples in reference list

Chambers, I. (1985) Urban Rhythms: Pop Music and Popular Culture. London: Macmillan.
Hebdige, D. (1979) Subculture: The Meaning of Style. London: Routledge.

The following provides examples of how to cite the most common sources of information ie books, journals, a chapter (paper) in an edited book, and internet sites.

A book

Surname(s) followed by initials, date of publication (in brackets), title (in italics), place of publication, publisher.

Pass, C. and Lowes, B. (1997) Business and Microeconomics. London: Routledge.
Weiss, L. (1998) The Myth of the Powerless State. Cambridge: Polity Press.

A journal article 

Author(s), date of publication (in brackets), title (possibly in inverted commas), journal (in italics), volume (possibly in bold), number (usually in brackets), page numbers.

Brannen, J. and Nilsen, A. (2002) ‘Young People’s Time Perspectives: from Youth to Adulthood’, Sociology 36 (3) 513–37.
Burgess, S.F. (1997) ‘Smallholder Voice and Rural Transformation: Zimbabwe and Kenya Compared’, Comparative Politics 29 (2) 127-49.

A chapter/article in an edited book 

Author(s) of chapter/article, date of publication (in brackets), title of chapter (possibly in inverted commas), editor of book, title of book (in italics), pages, place of publication, publisher.

Dunkel, P.A. and Davis, J.N. (1995) ‘The Effects of Rhetorical Signalling Cues on Recall’ in Flowerdew, J. (ed.) Academic Listening, pp. 24-41, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Medhurst, A. (1999) ‘What Did I Get? Punk, Memory and Autobiography’ in Sabin, R. (ed.) Punk Rock: So What? The Cultural Legacy of Punk, pp. 219-331, London: Routledge.

An electronic journal 

Author(s), date of publication (in brackets), title of document, title of journal (in italics), volume, issue, page numbers. Available from: URL (sometimes in angle brackets), date accessed (in square brackets)

Sohmer, S. (1999) ‘The Lunar Calendar of Shakespeare’s King Lear’, Early Modern Literary Studies, 5 (2) no pages, [Accessed on 10 February 2006].

Further information

The links below contain more information on the Harvard system: